William Blitheman - William Blitheman was organist to Elizabeth I's Chapel Royal and a composer of church and virginal music. Byrd and Thomas Tallis were granted an exclusive license to print and publish music by Elizabeth I Thomas Campion Thomas Campion was a physician, poet and composer of over songs for the lute.
John Farmer c. Orlando Gibbons Orlando Gibbons was the leading English composer of his generation.
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Gibbons is also well-known for his sacred choral music, hymns and anthems. Robert Johnson c. Morley was employed at St. Paul's in London and became a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal in Singer, composer and Gentleman of the Chapel Royal. Composed liturgical music for the new Prayer book. Thomas Ravenscroft Thomas Ravenscroft a composer of rounds and catches, and especially for compiling collections of British folk music.
He sang in the choir of St. Paul's Cathedral. Philip Rosseter c. Thomas Tallis c. He is often referred to as the "father of English church music".
While many may have disliked the newly-imposed English services, few seem to have absented themselves from public worship in the early Elizabethan years. So began the years of persecution which saw influential Roman Catholics martyred for treason, and many more imprisoned and persecuted.
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Yet, while it is well documented that Elizabeth personally favoured greater religious tolerance than Parliament permitted her, the foiling of numerous plots and assassination attempts against her during the s and 80s demonstrated that concerns about her safety were well-founded.
Meanwhile, behind the walls of Roman Catholic houses, of the scriptures to which believers most often turned for comfort and encouragement during these troubled times, Old Testament texts concerning the Babylonian captivity proved particularly popular, and provided much inspiration for composers. This is the context out of which sprang the works in the present programme. John Dowland turned to Rome while a teenager in Paris, but he had returned to England by the time he was first turned down for a post at court.
An Italian journey to study with Marenzio got him accidentally mixed up in a plot against Elizabeth from which he hurriedly escaped, but, upon his return, failed again to win the royal patronage he so desperately craved.
Finally, James I took him on as a lutenist in Here, Dowland casts his melancholia in rather chromatic musical material. William Byrd c. His connections in Catholic circles are well-documented, but it was through his music that he most openly served the recusant community while his friendship with Elizabeth ensured impunity : his Cantiones sacrae of and included numerous works with overtly subversive texts, while the Gradualia of and provided short liturgical motets for the year-round celebration of the mass. The extraordinary 8-part motet Quomodo cantabimus, appears to have had a particularly memorable genesis: the eighteenth-century antiquarian John Alcock records that Philippe de Monte, kappelmeister to the Holy Roman Emperor, sent Byrd a copy of his motet Super flumina Babylonis , a setting of the opening verses of that most memorable exile text, psalm in English translations.
Location on stage meant everything to a theatre musician. The location gave certain effects to the sound produced. This could be the impression of distance or providing an atmosphere to the plays and performances done. Theatre music became even more popular with the rise of William Shakespeare in the 's. Many composers of the period are still known by name, today.
Many of his songs still exist today. William Byrd was the chief organist and composer for Queen Elizabeth. Also during the 16th century were John Bull — , best-known organist of the Elizabethan era, and John Dowland — , leading composer of lute music. John Dowland published his first book of songs or "ayres" in It became a bestseller. These composers, among others, would give rise to the English Madrigal School which, while brief, was incredibly popular.
A madrigal was the most common form of secular vocal music. Organology the study of instruments was aided greatly by the development of book printing.critzagvimadi.gq
Michael Praetorius ' encyclopedic Syntagma Musicum has a section with woodcuts which shows instruments as they were used on the continent about 17 years after the end of the Elizabethan period, and even 20 years hadn't made great changes. For the modern person, Renaissance instruments appear odd. Most instruments came in 'families', with sizes of the same instrument associated with the ranges of the human voice: descant soprano , treble alto , tenor, bass.
In some cases, these were extended up sopranino, garklein and in others, down quart bass, contrabass, etc. This arrangement had been in use for centuries. Playing instruments from the same family together was referred to as playing in consort. During Elizabeth's reign, the first documented regular use of mixed ensembles broken consort are recorded. Consorts were considered loud or soft , and the exact application of these titles is sometimes hard to pin down.
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Generally, loud consorts consisted of cornetti, sackbuts, shawms and the higher-pitched recorders and flutes. Soft consorts generally included the viols, flutes, recorders, krummhorns and other of the quieter instruments. Instruments of the 16th century could be broken down into four main types: string , wind , percussion , and keyboard.
The lute was the most popular stringed instrument. The lute is identifiable by its size and shape, with the pear-shaped body and angled head. Strings are grouped in courses, each course consisting of a single or doubled string, tuned in unison or octaves. The most common lute of Elizabeth's time had six, seven or eight courses, and was used both for solo and accompaniment purposes.
Although the lute came in sizes, the Tenor was most popular. Similar instruments include the cittern , orpharion and bandora. The next most popular stringed instrument, made in sizes and played in consorts or alone, was the viola da gamba.
The viol had six strings, and frets of gut tied around the neck, rather than embedded in the fingerboard. The shape of the body was somewhat like the violin family instruments, but with deeper ribs, a shallow top plate and a flat back in two parts with the upper part angled to give clearance to the player. There were three main sizes: treble, tenor, bass , with reference made in a Gibbons six-part fantasia to the "great double bass.
The most popular size of the viol was the bass. Although roughly the size of a small cello, the bass viol had no end-pin, and, like the other viols, was supported by the legs hence the Italian name, viola da gamba. They were most commonly played in consort, i. In this way, they could be used as accompaniment for singing. Duet music for any two of the family still exists, and the bass, alone, was a popular solo instrument for pieces such as Woodycock. A small bass or tenor-sized viol tuned as a bass was often employed to play polyphonic music, Lyra-Way.
When used in this fashion, the instrument was called lyra viol. The common wind instruments included the shawms , recorders , cornetts , sackbuts trombones , krumhorns and flutes. The trumpets and pifferi were used for the announcement of the arrival of royalty and during military exercises. The shawms, cornetti and sackbuts were used in loud consorts. The flute had a sweet and solemn tone, the recorder had a more rich sound, but because of the windway which directed the breath against the edge where the sound is created the player had less dynamic control.
The shawms and krummhorns were double-reed instruments, but because the krummhorns had a cylindrical bore, they sounded an octave lower than the shawms of the same sounding-length and were quieter. This cylindrical bore is what gives the clarinet its characteristic sound, but the clarinet, as such, had yet to be invented. The soprano of the shawm family called 'hautbois' by the French, for high or loud wood would eventually be tamed to make the baroque oboe.